Expressed during S phase, then expression strongly decreases as cell division slows down during the process of differentiation.
Acetylation is generally linked to gene activation. Acetylation on Lys-10 (H3K9ac) impairs methylation at Arg-9 (H3R8me2s). Acetylation on Lys-19 (H3K18ac) and Lys-24 (H3K24ac) favors methylation at Arg-18 (H3R17me). Acetylation at Lys-123 (H3K122ac) by EP300/p300 plays a central role in chromatin structure: localizes at the surface of the histone octamer and stimulates transcription, possibly by promoting nucleosome instability.; Citrullination at Arg-9 (H3R8ci) and/or Arg-18 (H3R17ci) by PADI4 impairs methylation and represses transcription.; Asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-18 (H3R17me2a) by CARM1 is linked to gene activation. Symmetric dimethylation at Arg-9 (H3R8me2s) by PRMT5 is linked to gene repression. Asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-3 (H3R2me2a) by PRMT6 is linked to gene repression and is mutually exclusive with H3 Lys-5 methylation (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3). H3R2me2a is present at the 3' of genes regardless of their transcription state and is enriched on inactive promoters, while it is absent on active promoters.; Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me), Lys-37 (H3K36me) and Lys-80 (H3K79me) are linked to gene activation. Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me) facilitates subsequent acetylation of H3 and H4. Methylation at Lys-80 (H3K79me) is associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB) responses and is a specific target for TP53BP1. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) and Lys-28 (H3K27me) are linked to gene repression. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) is a specific target for HP1 proteins (CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5) and prevents subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) and acetylation of H3 and H4. Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me) and Lys-80 (H3K79me) require preliminary monoubiquitination of H2B at 'Lys-120'. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) and Lys-28 (H3K27me) are enriched in inactive X chromosome chromatin. Monomethylation at Lys-57 (H3K56me1) by EHMT2/G9A in G1 phase promotes interaction with PCNA and is required for DNA replication.; Phosphorylated at Thr-4 (H3T3ph) by HASPIN during prophase and dephosphorylated during anaphase. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by AURKB is crucial for chromosome condensation and cell-cycle progression during mitosis and meiosis. In addition phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by RPS6KA4 and RPS6KA5 is important during interphase because it enables the transcription of genes following external stimulation, like mitogens, stress, growth factors or UV irradiation and result in the activation of genes, such as c-fos and c-jun. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph), which is linked to gene activation, prevents methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) but facilitates acetylation of H3 and H4. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by AURKB mediates the dissociation of HP1 proteins (CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5) from heterochromatin. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) is also an essential regulatory mechanism for neoplastic cell transformation. Phosphorylated at Ser-29 (H3S28ph) by MAP3K20 isoform 1, RPS6KA5 or AURKB during mitosis or upon ultraviolet B irradiation. Phosphorylation at Thr-7 (H3T6ph) by PRKCB is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of Lys-5 (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. At centromeres, specifically phosphorylated at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) from prophase to early anaphase, by DAPK3 and PKN1. Phosphorylation at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) by PKN1 is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that promotes demethylation of Lys-10 (H3K9me) by KDM4C/JMJD2C. Phosphorylation at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) by chromatin-associated CHEK1 regulates the transcription of cell cycle regulatory genes by modulating acetylation of Lys-10 (H3K9ac). Phosphorylation at Tyr-42 (H3Y41ph) by JAK2 promotes exclusion of CBX5 (HP1 alpha) from chromatin.; Monoubiquitinated by RAG1 in lymphoid cells, monoubiquitination is required for V(D)J recombination (By similarity). Ubiquitinated by the CUL4-DDB-RBX1 complex in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This may weaken the interaction between histones and DNA and facilitate DNA accessibility to repair proteins.; Lysine deamination at Lys-5 (H3K4all) to form allysine is mediated by LOXL2. Allysine formation by LOXL2 only takes place on H3K4me3 and results in gene repression.; Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes.; Butyrylation of histones marks active promoters and competes with histone acetylation. It is present during late spermatogenesis.; Succinylation at Lys-80 (H3K79succ) by KAT2A takes place with a maximum frequency around the transcription start sites of genes. It gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcription activation. Desuccinylation at Lys-123 (H3K122succ) by SIRT7 in response to DNA damage promotes chromatin condensation and double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair.; Serine ADP-ribosylation constitutes the primary form of ADP-ribosylation of proteins in response to DNA damage. Serine ADP-ribosylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ADPr) is mutually exclusive with phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) and impairs acetylation at Lys-10 (H3K9ac).
Core component of nucleosome. The nucleosome, made up of DNA wound around eight core histone proteins (two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Histone H3 is one of the five main histones involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Featuring a main globular domain and a long N-terminal tail, H3 is involved with the structure of the nucleosomes of the 'beads on a string' structure. Histone proteins are highly post-translationally modified however Histone H3 is the most extensively modified of the five histones. The term "Histone H3" alone is purposely ambiguous in that it does not distinguish between sequence variants or modification state. Histone H3 is an important protein in the emerging field of epigenetics, where its sequence variants and variable modification states are thought to play a role in the dynamic and long term regulation of genes.
Wu, Baohong et al.
Epigenetic drug library screening identified an LSD1 inhibitor to target UTX-deficient cells for differentiation therapy. | Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy 
Tao, M., Zhu, W., Han, H., Liu, S., Liu, A., Li, S., Fu, H., & Tian, J.
Mitochondrial proteomic analysis reveals the regulation of energy metabolism and reactive oxygen species production in Clematis terniflora DC. leaves under high-level UV-B radiation followed by dark treatmenttreatment