Most DNA is found inside the nucleus of a cell, where it forms the chromosomes. Chromosomes have proteins called histones that bind to DNA. Histones bind to DNA, help give chromosomes their shape, and help control the activity of genes. Because DNA wraps around histones, they also play a important role in chromatin regulation and in the regulation of gene expression. A histone modification is a covalent post-translational modification (PTM) to histone proteins which includes methylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation.
Histones H3, H4, H2A, and H2B form the nucleosome around which our DNA wraps. Histone tails are targets of epigenetic modification–including methylation and ubiquitination– that regulate gene expression.
HUABIO offer tools to study histone modifications, such as antibodies and kits for ChIP, ChIP-seq, histone extraction, and quantification.