Cell signaling is the fundamental process by which specific information is transferred from the cell surface to the cytosol and ultimately to the nucleus, leading to changes in gene expression. Signals are relayed inside a cell starting from the cell membrane receptor. The chains of molecules that relay intracellular signals are known intracellular signal transduction pathways.
Recently it has become apparent that a number of human diseases, among them such diverse disorders as cholera, hyperthyroidism, myasthenia gravis and certain types of diabetes, arise from a common mechanism: faulty communication among cells.
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